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Jörg Wacker

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Jörg Wacker

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These results suggest that aggression is evoked automatically, and that appraisals moderate overt behavior only when enough cognitive resources are available.

The implications of the above research for the present thesis are twofold. First, the findings indicate that activation of behavior schemata and appraisal processes are two independent processes.

Applied to frustration, this suggests that the negative quality of an obstacle automatically activates respective behavior schemata, whereas depending on cognitive resources, appraisals of controllability and goal expectancy influence overt behavior.

To elaborate the second implication a short digression is necessary. Thus, if frustration automatically evokes anger and aggression, and anger and aggression are associated with approach motivation, then the conclusion seems plausible that frustration elicits an approach orientation.

However, it is not yet clear whether anger and aggression are only and purely approach motivated. In aggression research, different forms of aggressive behavior are distinguished that closely resemble the distinction between approach and avoidance motivated behavior.

In particular, whereas one form of aggression i. The first form of aggression is motivated by the anticipation of positive events and is thus probably approach motivated.

Conversely, the latter form is motivated by negative events making it probably avoidance motivated. Importantly, only the latter form has been found to be accompanied by anger Hubbard et al.

Furthermore, it has been argued that an avoidance motivation i. Thus, in this definition aggression is avoidance motivated.

Consequently, a frustration-aggression link does not imply a frustrationapproach link. Thus, more research is needed to clarify under which conditions anger and aggression are associated with an approach or with an avoidance motivation.

Hemispherical Lateralization Research on hemispherical lateralization is relevant for the relation of frustration to motivational orientation and motivational intensity, respectively, because several findings show that the prefrontal regions of the brain are asymmetrically involved in emotion and motivation.

However, because the exact nature of the relations is still unclear, conclusions cannot be drawn yet. Nevertheless, the research and its implications shall be outlined here.

In particular, two different explanations of hemispherical lateralization will be discussed. One explanation argues that hemispheric al lateralization represents motivational orientation e.

Also, anger induced by a frustrating situation has been shown to be associated with an increase in relative left-prefrontal activity Harmon-Jones et al.

According to the authors, these findings demonstrate that hemispherical lateralization reflects motivational orientation rather than valence, because anger and aggression are related to approach motivation.

Given this explanation, one may conclude that frustration elicits an approach motivation, because it leads to an increase of left-prefrontal activity.

However, there are two limitations to this conclusion. First, as argued in the last section, anger and aggression are not necessarily associated with approach motivation.

Second, a study by Harmon-Jones et al. In particular, participants of this study were college students who were against a tuition increase at their university.

One group was informed that tuitions would definitely be increased at their university i. Another group was informed that a tuition increase was under consideration and that they could sign a petition against it i.

Thus, both groups were frustrated 3 but differed with respect to their coping potential. It turned out that the high coping group exhibited greater left frontal activity than the low coping group.

Moreover, in the high coping group, but not in the low coping group, left frontal activity was related to anger and coping behavior.

A similar finding was obtained by using another anger-inducing situation and manipulation of 3 Of course, to interpret this manipulation as frustration one must assume that participants who were against a tuition increase have the goal to keep tuitions stable.

In sum, these findings suggest that not frustration and anger in general but expectation of doing something is related to left prefrontal activation.

This suggests that controllable frustration elicits an approach motivation. Wacker et al. Specifically, by employing an imagery procedure they showed that the experience of goal conflict led to higher relative right prefrontal activity, whereas the imagination of action irrespective of direction approach or avoidance led to higher relative left prefrontal activity.

Thus, these data suggest that hemispherical lateralization represents motivational intensity rather than motivational orientation.

In conclusion, present evidence is inconclusive with respect to the relation of hemispherical lateralization and motivation.

If the first explanation is true and activation of the left hemisphere reflects approach motivation, then the findings of a relation between frustration and left-prefrontal activity Harmon-Jones et al.

If, however, the second explanation is true and activation of the left hemisphere reflects motivational intensity i.

Goal Striving How does goal striving after frustration change? In other words, how does frustration affect motivational intensity?

Typical measures of motivational intensity are effort i. Reeve, Research suggests that arousal as well as control beliefs contribute to changes of motivational intensity after frustration.

In human research, Wortman and Brehm proposed an integrative model of reactance theory and learned helplessness by suggesting control beliefs as a mediating mechanism to changes of goal striving.

In what follows, both theories will be outlined. A main assumption states that frustrative nonreward elicits an aversive motivational state, called primary frustration4.

This state can be characterized as an avoidance motivation that is accompanied by high arousal. Arousal is assumed to increase the vigor of ongoing instrumental behavior cf.

Hull, ; Zajonc, First evidence came from studies with rats. For example, Amsel and Roussel reported that rats run faster in a runway to a second goal box after a nonrewarded trial as compared to a rewarded trial.

Thus, frustration enhanced instrumental behavior of running to a goal box. The effect of frustration on arousal and response vigor was later replicated and extended by Otis and Ley by demonstrating a relationship between intensity of arousal and response vigor.

Unfortunately, no mediation analysis was conducted. Such an analysis would have provided convincing evidence for the assumption that the increase of goal striving is mediated by arousal.

Besides arousal, control beliefs have been shown to play a role in the effects of frustration on goal striving. In particular, Libb and Serum report that frustration leads to faster responses in a button-pressing task among participants with an internal locus of control i.

Although difficulty can arise due to several factors, frustration can be conceived of as one case of increased difficulty. In sum, the above findings suggest that an increase of motivational intensity is associated with high arousal.

Unfortunately, there is only little evidence regarding the mediational role of arousal. Thus, it is unclear whether arousal indeed is a causal factor in increasing motivational intensity.

Furthermore, since only little studies have been conducted with humans as participants, it is still questionable whether the findings from animal research can be fully generalized to humans.

Theoretical Part 9 Control Beliefs and Goal Striving Wortman and Brehm aim at explaining the influence of uncontrollability on motivational intensity.

Uncontrollability is the experience of outcomes that are not contingent to behavior. For instance, uncontrollability in a problem-solving task is feedback i.

Since frustration can be described as a situation where behavior does not lead to the expected outcome because of an external cause i.

Whereas in general, noncontingency between behavior and outcome can be due to several causes e. Thus, the work of Wortman and Brehm is in part relevant for research on frustration.

According to reactance theory, experience of uncontrollability evokes attempts to restore control, resulting in increased goal striving.

In contrast, the learned helplessness model predicts that experiences of uncontrollability lead to typical helplessness effects like passivity, depression and cognitive dysfunction.

Wortman and Brehm solve this apparent contradiction by suggesting that control beliefs are a crucial factor influencing the effects of uncontrollability on motivation and emotion.

As long as control beliefs are high, loss of control threatens control beliefs and therefore enhances the motivation to restore control. If people become convinced that control over the outcome is not possible for instance through high amount of failure experiences , attempts to exert control will be stopped.

The consequence is learned helplessness with its detrimental effects on motivation and cognitive functioning.

Consistent with this reasoning, it has been shown that after few exposures to uncontrollable outcomes i.

These effects were replicated and extended by Pittman and Pittman , by demonstrating that after few exposures to uncontrollable outcomes, feelings of hostility emerged, whereas after high exposures to uncontrollable outcomes, feelings of depression emerged.

Moreover, the authors found that reactance and helplessness effects were more pronounced for individuals who have high internal control beliefs than for individuals who have high external control beliefs.

Further research highlighted the moderating role of attributions. In particular, a decrease in motivational intensity after high exposure to uncontrollable outcomes was found only when failure was attributed internally.

Unfortunately, control beliefs were not measured in this study. Thus, it is unclear, whether and how control beliefs influenced motivational intensity.

Research from developmental psychology suggests that emotional responses mediate effects of frustration on motivational intensity. In particular, infants who reacted with anger to frustration showed more interest and enjoyment in a subsequent task than infants who reacted with sadness.

Unfortunately, this finding is difficult to interpret because it is unclear which aspects of the emotional states control appraisals?

A study conducted by Mischel and Masters with children surprisingly suggests that low beliefs of goal expectancy increase task interest after frustration.

In particular, children who were frustrated by the interruption of a film and were informed that it was impossible to resume the film found the film more interesting than children who were informed that continuing to watch the film was very likely.

Thus, children who had low control appraisals evidenced higher task interest. In sum, although it is clear that control appraisals as well as arousal play a role in the effects of frustration on motivational intensity, the nature of the relation as well as the underlying mechanisms and the interaction of these factors is still not satisfyingly understood.

In particular, the interplay of rather cool appraisal processes and rather hot emotional processes is not clear yet.

Nevertheless, the present picture suggests that control must be possible in order that goal striving is maintained after frustration.

In addition, arousal increases the intensity of motivation. Interim Conclusion This section provided an overview of research on the consequences of frustration.

A particular focus was put on possible implications for the relationship between frustration and motivational orientation and motivational intensity, respectively.

Specifically, it was explored how much support the proposition receives that controllable frustration evokes an approach motivation, which helps to overcome frustration e.

No single study has been found that investigated the effect of frustration on clear-cut measures of approach-avoidance orientation.

Although some variables have been studied that may be associated with motivational orientation i.

Concerning motivational intensity, arousal and control beliefs have been studied as factors mediating the effect of frustration on goal striving.

No single study has been found that demonstrated increased approach motivation as a mediating mechanism. Furthermore, the review revealed several open questions concerning the consequences of frustration.

Most importantly, theoretical integration of the different lines of research is missing at present. Moreover, there is no clear-cut empirical evidence concerning the effects of frustration on motivational orientation.

Furthermore, the role of control beliefs in frustration is still unclear because control beliefs were mainly studied in situations that did not involve external attributions as is typical for frustration.

Taken together, to date research does not provide satisfying answers to the questions which motivational orientation is elicited by frustration and how motivational intensity changes after frustration.

Theoretical Part 11 Approach-Avoidance Motivation Several theorists from different disciplines proposed that emotion and behavior is carried by two motivational systems i.

Despite this general accordance, the theories differ in one important aspect: Some of these theories focus on goal-directed behavior and propose that the direction of the goal moving towards something desired vs.

This conceptualization implies that the activation of a motivational system is rather stable. Particularly, once a goal has activated one of the two systems, it will prevail throughout the whole episode of goal pursuit and direct emotions and behavior.

In contrast, the other theory type focuses on spontaneous reactions and proposes that motivational orientations are a function of the valence of an immediately perceived stimulus Gray, ; Lang et al.

Specifically, the perception of positive stimuli elicits an approach orientation and the perception of negative stimuli elicits an avoidance orientation.

Hence, motivational orientations can switch rapidly between approach and avoidance depending on the environment and the focus of attention.

This mechanism may help organisms to behave successfully in a rapidly changing environment. For example, when reactions to positive and negative stimuli are investigated, valence of present stimuli and direction of the goal activated by these stimuli approach or avoidance goal are confounded.

However, when it comes to examining frustration these theories make different predictions. As outlined in the first part of this thesis, the situation of frustration is characterized by a goal-hierarchy with a superordinate approach goal i.

Thus, according to the first theory type the activation of approach motivation would prevail despite the appearance of obstacles, whereas the latter theory type would predict a rapid switch to avoidance motivation.

Unfortunately, except for animal research that support the latter position, substantial empirical evidence is lacking.

Hence, to date it is unclear, how different levels of goal hierarchies interact with motivational orientations of ap proach and avoidance.

In what follows, research on approach-avoidance motivation will be reviewed structured by the distinction elaborated above.

In a similar vein, Higgins proposed in his regulatory focus theory that people can adopt a promotion focus, in which they focus on approaching a desired end state, or a prevention focus, in which they focus on avoiding an undesired end state.

These theories suggest that the represented goal state determines which system or focus will be activated and then regulates emotion and behavior.

Despite this agreement, the theories differ with 12 Theoretical Part respect to the consequences of progress feedback. Whereas the regulatory focus theory assumes that people are sensitive to compatible feedback i.

These assumptions are particularly relevant for the situation of frustration, since obstacles can be conceived of as incompatib le feedback during goal pursuit.

Promotion-Prevention Focus According to Higgins , promotio n-prevention focus i. These assumptions are supported by an overwhelming amount of studies e.

Most of these studies investigated regulatory focus as an independent variable. In particular, pressure of arm flexion and extension was used as a measure of motivational strength.

This measure bears on the notion that the flexor muscle is activated during approach movements pulling somethin g towards the self , and the extensor muscle is activated during avoidance movements pushing something away from the self cf.

Cacioppo et al. Moreover, type of feedback success vs. Failure and success feedback was manipulated by telling participants that they performed in the first half of an anagram task above or below the criterion for getting an extra dollar i.

Motivational strength was then measured in the second half of the anagram task. It turned out that in a promotion focus success feedback, and not failure feedback, increased the strength of arm flexor pressure i.

In particular, approach motivation is increased by success feedback, whereas avoidance motivation is increased by failure feedback. Applied to the situation of frustration, this finding may suggest that obstacles i.

People may just be blind for obstacles. However, this is only a speculation since relevant research is lacking.

The approach and avoidance systems are conceived of as feedback loops that monitor progress Theoretical Part 13 toward a desired goal e.

Specifically, the rate of progress is compared against a reference rate. A discrepancy between actual progress and expected progress manifests itself subjectively as affect.

The function of affect is to regulate behavior such that the person mobilizes more effort or disengages from further effort Carver, In particular, achievement of an approach goal leads to elation, and failure at an approach goal leads to sadness.

Conversely, achievement of an avoidance goal leads to relief, and failure at an avoidance goal leads to fear.

Thus, elation and relief inform the person that the goal has been reached and that she can stop goal pursuit, whereas sadness and fear inform the person that goal pursuit has been failed and that she better disengage from this goal and choose an alternative goal.

He proposes that anger arises if obstacles block the pursuit of an approach goal. Thus, the function of anger is to engage more effort i.

First, negative affect as a response to frustration i. Second, obstacles are assumed to increase the engagement of the approach system.

Regarding the first hypothesis, Carver reports two experiments showing that negative feelings are predicted by dispositional approach motivation.

In particular, the higher the dispositional approach motivation, the more sadness and anger participants reported after being frustrated or imagining a provocative scenario.

Concerning the second hypothesis that obstacles increase the engagement of the approach system, Carver refers to studies demonstrating the effect of frustration on performance and hemispherical lateralization, respectively.

In particular, frustration has been shown to lead to more engagement in a subsequent task, depending on whether frustration evokes anger as compared to sadness Lewis et al.

Furthermore, frustration leads to a relative increase of left prefrontal activity, if there is a possibility to cope with the obstacle Harmon-Jones et al.

As I have already discussed in the first part of this thesis, these findings cannot be interpreted as an increase of approach motivation, because the dependent variables are not clear indicators of approach motivation.

First, engagement in a task reflects motivational intensity, but not motivational orientation. Second, an unequivocal interpretation of hemispherical lateralization is to date not possible, because research is not yet conclusive whether hemispherical lateralization reflects motivational orientation or motivational intensity.

To sum up, according to the theories outlined in this section, the represented goal approach or avoidance goal determines the activation of a motivational system.

As a consequence, the systems generate different strategic means to reach the goal as well as different emotions.

The description of motivational systems as regulative systems implies that the activation of a motivational system is rather stable throughout the whole episode of goal pursuit.

Despite this general accordance in regulatory control, there is disagreement concerning the influence of goal progress feedback.

Research on regulatory focus theory demonstrated that compatibility between focus and feedback leads to an increase of motivation.

In other words, the current focus is blind for incompatible feedback. This may suggest that frustration i. Hence, frustration can increase approach motivation.

However, to my knowledge, evidence supporting this assumption has not been published yet. Stimulus Valence as a Determinant for Approach -Avoidance Motivation Besides the above cited theories, there is a second type of approach-avoidance models that concentrate on the immediate perception of positive and negative stimuli as determinants for the activation of a motivational system Gray, ; Lang et al.

According to these models, evaluation of objects and behavior towards these objects are linked very tightly.

Motivational systems or motivational orientations are conceived of as mechanisms that provide a quick pathway from perception to behavior.

This mechanism may serve the function to prepare the organism for appropriate behavioral reactions in a quickly changing environment, and thus to promote his survival.

In what follows, two different lines of research will be described: One line resid es in the realm of social cognition research, whereas the other line stems from biopsychological and animal research.

As different as these two lines of research are with respect to the theoretical background and the research methods, the findings imply similar conclusions regarding frustration and motivational orientation.

Therefore, they are summarized within the same section. First, work from the realm of social cognition research is summarized that demonstrates that the perception of valenced stimuli results in the activation of a compatible motivational orientation.

Social Cognition Research on Approach -Avoidance Orientations The research described in this section is based on the assumption that perception and behavior are linked very tightly.

In particular, in a first step environmental stimuli are evaluated automatically, and then in a second step, congruent motivational orientations are elicited automatically, which results in the facilitation of respective behavior e.

In what follows, first research on evaluation and then research on behavior activation will be summarized and related to frustration.

Automatic Evaluation. Environmental stimuli subjected to evaluation can either contain an intrinsic i. Depending on the type of valence, different mechanisms of evaluation have been proposed.

Stimuli containing an intrinsic valence are assumed to be represented in an associative network together with their associated evaluation.

Thus, upon perceiving the object in the environment the associated evaluation is activated automatically through spreading activation.

Consistent with this assumption, an impressing amount of research demonstrates that the evaluation of objects in our environment occurs very quickly and independent of an evaluation intention e.

Contrary to stimuli containing an intrinsic valence, the evaluation of stimuli containing a motivational valence cannot be represented in an associative network because the valence is not stable but depends on current goals.

For instance, a locked door may be per se a neutral object, thus containing no intrinsic valence. However, depending on the goal of the perceiver e.

How are stimuli then evaluated that have adopted a positive or negative valence due to their significance in motivational processes?

At least two mechanisms are thinkable, a comparison process and a creation of a temporary tag in short term memory cf.

The comparison process involves an appraisal process that comp ares the goal state with the actual state. If there is a match between these two states , the actual state will be evaluated as positive.

If there is a mismatch, the actual state will be evaluated as negative. Another possible mechanism proposes that a temporary tag between the goal representation and a positive evaluation may be created in short term memory when a goal is being set.

Thus, upon encountering the goal state, the associated positive evaluation will be activated. At first glance it may seem that the comparison mechanism is more complex and thus takes more time.

How does the distinction between intrinsic and motivational valence relate to frustration? Remember that frustration is defined as an obstacle blocking the attainment of an anticipated gratification.

According to this definition, frustration can involve both, stimuli containing intrinsic valence as well as stimuli carrying motivational valence.

Consequently, nonappearance of the letter conveys a negative motivational valence. Furthermore, depending on the obstacle blocking goal attainment, stimuli containing negative intrinsic valence can also be involved in situations of frustration.

Through these examples it becomes clearer that both intrinsic as well as motivational valence can play a role in frustration.

As research has already demonstrated the automatic nature of intrinsic as well as motivational valence evaluations, it is probable that the valence of obstacles appearing during goal pursuit is also evaluated quite automatically.

Automatic Behavior Activation. Does evaluation immediately result in the activation of motivational orientations? Numerous studies have demonstrated that the perception of intrinsic valence automatically activates compatible approach-avoidance tendencies.

However, concerning motivational valence, th e picture is less clear. In what follows, research on the behavioral effects of intrinsic valence will be summarized, followed by research on the behavioral effects of motivational valence.

In a pioneering study, Solarz let his participants move cards with words mounted on a movable stage either towards themselves or away from themselves.

In one condition 5 Assuming that the concept letter does not contain an intrinic valence. In the other condition, participants received opposite instructions i.

It turned out that participants performing compatible movements were faster than participants performing incompatible movements.

Again, compatible responses positive-pull, negative-push were executed faster than incompatible responses positivepush, negative-pull. Moreover, in a subsequent study the authors demonstrated that this effect does not depend on the intention to evaluate the words.

In particular, when participants were instructed to respond with joystick movements upon the mere appearance of a word on the screen, the same results were obtained.

Thus, the activation of motivational orientations towards approach and avoidance occurs independent of a conscious intention to process evaluative meaning.

Further research investigated the underlying mechanism of behavior facilitation more closely. Several studies demonstrated that not specific movements but the representation of the reaction as approach or avoidance is crucial.

In other words, what matters is whether participants represent the response as a mean to decrease i. In particular, participants moved a manikin towards a word or away from a word by pressing the up and down buttons of the keyboard.

Depending on the position of the manikin on the screen i. Employing other measures that bear on the same logic, Markman and Brendl as well as Seibt, Neumann, Nussinson, and Strack also demonstrated that representation of distance regulation and not the concrete movement is crucial.

Taken together, research indicates that stimuli containing an intrinsic valence immediately activate a predisposition to decrease or increase the distance to a target.

Thus, intrinsic valence results in the elicitation of a motivational orientation. How does motivational valence translate into behavior? Unfortunately, research on this question is quite equivocal.

Moors and De Houwer demonstrated in one study that evaluation of motivational valence immediately results in the activation of compatible behavior tendencies.

In this study, participants had to move a manikin towards or away from a word that indicated motivational valence i.

It turned out that approach behavior was facilitated when the word indicated success, whereas avoidance behavior was facilitated, when the word indicated failure.

This finding thus supports the notion that evaluation of motivational valence immediately results in the elicitation of a compatible motivational orientation.

But one must be cautious with this statement as a final conclusion, because a series of studies conducted by Rothermund b shed another light on the effects of motivational valence.

Applying a somewhat different paradigm than Moors and De Houwer, Rothermund demonstrated that success and failure feedback facilitates incongruent responses.

Specifically, in a modified affective priming paradigm success Theoretical Part 17 feedback facilitated responses to negative targets and failure feedback facilitates responses to positive targets.

Although the author concentrated on attention allocation effects in his explanation, the findings can also be interpreted as response facilitation.

How can this divergence be explained? As the paradigms differ in many respects there is no definite answer. A crucial difference concerns the interstimulus interval between motivational valence and response signal.

Rothermund employed a longer interstimulus interval ms than Moors and De Houwer 0 ms. Thus, one possibility is that the time course plays an important role in the pathway from evaluation of motivational valence to behavior.

In sum, the present evidence suggests that intrinsic as well as motivational valence is processed quite automatically and results immediately in the activation of a compatible motivational orientation.

What does this imply for frustration? As the research on automatic behavior activation only studied reactions to simple stimuli, it is unclear whether the findings can be generalized to frustration.

Remember that frustration is characterized by a goal hierarchy consisting of a superordinate approach goal and a subordinate avoidance goal induced by the obstacle.

It is still unclear how such a complex structure of representations affects elicitation of behavioral reactions. In other words, it has not yet been investigated how superordinate goals moderate evaluations of and behavioral responses to stimuli on a subordinate level.

To my knowledge, this is the only research that aimed at directly investigating the effects of frustration on approachavoidance motivation.

However, empirical evidence stems only from animal studies. Nevertheless, the findings are considered as highly relevant for the present thesis.

By categorizing environmental stimuli, Gray distinguishes presence and absence of reward and punishment6. Hence, one can encounter reward, nonreward i.

Which systems are activated by which stimuli? Basically, stimuli that are in their essence positive i. Thus, according to Gray frustration activates an avoidance motivation i.

The third system, the behavioral inhibition system BIS is activated whenever a conflict between approximately equally activated and incompatible goals is existent.

As this system is not relevant for frustration, it will not be outlined in detail here. Animal research provides a vast amount of evidence supporting this hypothesis for a review see Gray, Basically, three strategies have been employed to test this hypothesis.

But for the purpose of the present thesis, these dimensions can be disregarded. From these findings it was concluded that frustration induces an aversive state the animal is motivated to escape.

If one considers avoidance motivation as an aversive motivational state, these findings suggest that frustration elicits an avoidance motivation.

Second, by making use of learning theory it was demonstrated that learning effects acquired in a frustration procedure transfer to punishment procedures and vice versa.

The logic behind this strategy is as follows: If frustration is motivationally the same as punishment, then it should lead to the same effects as punishment does.

In other words, frustration and punishment should be interchangeable in learning experiments. The third strategy used drugs that are known to reduce fear reactions e.

These drugs were demonstrated to be capable of reducing frustration reactions as well. Exemplarily, for each strategy one experiment will be described.

One of the first experiments employing the first strategy was conducted by Adelman and Maatsch In one of these experiments rats were trained to traverse a runway to get food at the goal box.

In extinction trials i. The animals learned the jumping response as fast as a second group of animals that were rewarded for the jumping response, and faster than a control group that never had received a reward in the goal box or on the platform.

This finding was interpreted as evidence that frustration induced an avoidance motivation, which facilitated learning of avoidance behavior.

The blocking effect means that a stimulus that has already been paired with an unconditioned stimulus blocks the pairing of another stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.

The procedure goes as follows. First, a stimulus e. Then a second stimulus e. As a result, the animal does not learn the second pairing.

This effect is interpreted that in the second pairing phase the tone already completely predicts the shock, so that the light has no predictive power any more and is thus not conditioned.

In an extension of this paradigm, in the second pairing phase other unconditioned stimuli varying in similarity to the first unconditioned stimulus have been used.

The more similar the second unconditioned stimulus is to the first unconditioned stimulus, the stronger the blocking effect is.

Thus, by using this procedure one can assess the degree of similarity between two stimuli. In this experiment the rats first learned that a light signaled nonreward i.

In a second phase, the light was presented with a tone followed by a shock. If the tone is not conditioned to the shock, then it can be concluded that nonreward and shock are highly similar.

Indeed, this was the finding, which suggests that frustration and punishment are very similar stimuli. By using the third strategy, drugs that reduce fear responses e.

In partic ular, if the drug was administered to the rats before extinction trials i. This finding was interpreted as evidence that amytal reduces avoidance responses to frustration by presumably reducing the 7 To demonstrate that amytal does not decrease jumping speed in general, a second control group was rewarded for jumping out of the goal box.

Contrary to the frustration group, amytal injections increased jumping speed in this group. Theoretical Part 19 aversiveness of frustration.

Together with the finding that the drug also reduces fear responses, this supports the assumption of a fundamental similarity between frustration and punishment.

To summarize, animal research provides ample evidence supporting the assumption that frustration activates the same system as punishment does.

In the terminology advanced in the present thesis, this is an avoidance motivation. Unfortunately, it is unclear whether these findings of a frustrationavoidance link can be generalized to human beings.

Interim Conclusion In the previous section, research was reviewed that is relevant for the questions of how frustration affects motivational orientation and motivational intensity.

In what follows, an interim conclusion will be drawn with respect to the proposed theoretical mechanisms and the empirical grounding.

Models of approach-avoidance motivation propose very different mechanisms underlying the processes of approach and avoidance.

Accordingly, these models suggest different effects of frustration on approach-avoidance motivation. The models conceiving of approach-avoidance motivation as regulative systems that are activated by a superordinate goal suggest either no effect of frustration e.

However, empirical evidence supporting the latter position could not be found. In contrast, models that focus on immediate perceptual input suggest that frustration activates an avoidance orientation due to the negativity of the obstacle.

However, evidence supporting this assumption stems only from animal research. Thus, in reference to the first main question of the present thesis concerning the effects of frustration on motivational orientation, conclusive evidence from human research is missing.

Similarly, knowledge about how frustration affects motivational intensity is rather limited, as outlined in the first part of this thesis.

Furthermore, no theoretical integration exists of the processes leading to the various consequences of frustration.

Up to now, theories on frustration concentrated on the very specific effects they wanted to study, for instance anger and aggression.

However, the understanding of frustration would be certainly promoted if its consequences can be predicted by one single model.

Moreover, such an approach would be very parsimonious because the processes that underlie the influence of frustration on various outcomes can be described by proposing a small number of assumptions.

As it will be outlined in the next section, the assumptions advanced in this dual-system model allow for a thorough description of how frustration affects motivational orientation and motivational intensity.

First, basic propositions of this model will be described. Then, hypotheses with respect to frustration will be derived. These systems operate according to different computations, but run in parallel and interact in the course of processing.

Whereas the reflective system influences behavior via decisions based on facts and values, the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations.

The impulsive system is conceived of as a long-term memory in the form of an associative network cf. Smith, Perceptual features, behavioral programs, and valence form associative clusters as a function of frequency and recency of joint activation.

If one part of the cluster is activated, activation spreads to the other parts. Thus, by encountering an object e. If the activation exceeds a certain threshold, the behavior is executed.

Most important for the present thesis is the assumption that the impulsive system can be oriented towards approach or avoidance.

A motivational orientation is conceived of as preparedness for two fundamental types of reactions: decreasing the distance to an object approach or increasing the distance to an object avoidance.

Distance increase can be accomplished either by moving away from the object or by causing the object to be removed i. A motivational orientation is elicited by a processing positive or negative information, b experiencing positive or negative affect, c perceiving approac h or avoidance, or d executing approach or avoidance behavior.

According to the principle of compatibility, processing information, experiencing affect, and executing behavior are facilitated if they are compatible with the prevailing motivational orientation.

Thus, positive valence is linked to approach, and negative valence is linked to avoidance.

Furthermore, impulsive processes are fast, can proceed in parallel and do not require cognitive capacity for their operation. Consequently, the main function of the impulsive system is to quickly generate appropriate reactions to suddenly occurring demands from the environment and to simplify cognitive processing by providing schemata that have developed through automatization.

These advantages, however, entail some disadvantages: The impulsive system cannot flexibly combine concepts by applying abstract relations, but instead is dependent on associative clusters that develop only slowly through repeated coactivation.

In particular, the impulsive system cannot form a judgment with a truth value e. Moreover, the impulsive system cannot apply the concept of time.

Thus, it cannot represent what will be the case in the future, but is driven by immediate perceptual input.

Whereas the impulsive system is specialized in generating quick responses towards the present environment, and therefore lacks flexibility and analytical competencies i.

The reflective system can re-represent what is activated in the IS in a symbolic format and flexibly combine the re-representations by applying abstract relations like truth, negation, or time.

Thus, the reflective system generates propositional judgments and draws inferences by using stored knowledge. Contrary to impulsive processes, reflective processes require cognitive capacity, operate slowly, and depend on intentions.

Theoretical Part 21 Most important for the present thesis, the reflective system generates a decision about the desirability and feasibility of a particular action based on knowledge about values and facts.

Thus, goals are set in the reflective system. Thereby, a behavioral intention is created which activates appropriate behavioral schemata in the impulsive system.

Note that here the reflective system interacts with the impulsive system. Most importantly, the activation of goal-relevant schemata is maintained until the goal has been reached.

Then the activation is turned off cf. This mechanism is called intending. Thus, following goal-setting in the reflective system, a rather automatically operating process called intending is started that keeps goal-relevant schemata activated until the goal has been reached.

The impulsive and the reflective system can run in parallel. Whereas the impulsive system is always operating, the reflective system only operates if an intention and sufficient cognitive capacity is present.

Arousal is assumed to influence impulsive as well as reflective processes, but in a different way.

Because operations of the reflective system depend on cognitive resources, a curvilinear relation between arousal and reflective functioning is proposed, with best functioning at an intermediate level of arousal cf.

In contrast, associative processes in the impulsive system are strengthened with increasing arousal cf.

Hull, ; Zajonc, How do the two systems interact? Most importantly, the reflective system is able to generate an intention that stands in opposition to behavioral schemata activated in the impulsive system by immediate perceptual input.

For example, the perception of a cake may immediately activate an approach orientation and the behavioral schema of eating in the impulsive system.

Given enough cognitive capacity, the reflective system can generate a behavior intention e.

Then, this intention activates the appropriate behavioral schemata in the impulsive system, which in turn leads to overt behavior.

Application to Frustration In what follows, propositions of the RIM will be applied to the situation of frustration.

Thereby, hypotheses with respect to two main questions will be deduced. The first question concerns the motivational orientation elicited by frustration.

The second question regards the mechanisms by which goal striving in the face of obstacles is maintained. As it was outlined at the beginning of the theoretical part, frustration is characterized by a superordinate approach goal i.

Whereas in most situations the obstacle is immediately present in the situation, the goal is only represented in memory.

According to the RIM, immediate perceptual input drives processes of the impulsive system. In particular, evaluation of environmental stimuli elicits a compatible motivational orientation.

Consequently, the negative valence intrinsic and motivational of the immediately perceivable obstacle is assumed to elicit an avoidance orientation in the impulsive system.

This implies that superordinate goals do not moderate this process. In particular, obstacles are assumed to elicit an avoidance orientation irrespective of whether the person is pursuing an approach or avoidance goal.

Note that this hypothesis is contrary to the conceptualization of approach-avoidance motivation as regulative systems Carver, ; Higgins, , which assumes an interaction of the represented goal state and progress feedback.

Furthermore, because a motivational orientation is elicited very fast in the impulsive system, appraisals that are based on reflective processes are assumed to not moderate the 22 Theoretical Part elicitation of a motivational orientation.

With respect to frustration, appraisals of controllability and goal expectancy play a crucial role.

Since such appraisals require reflective processes, because they imply a future perspective, they are assumed to not moderate the elicitation of a motivational orientation.

The hypothesis that motivational orientations follow the compatibility principle allows for a further prediction.

Because executing incompatible responses costs cognitive resources cf. Consequently, fewer resources are available for processing information that is relevant for goal pursuit, resulting in impaired goal achievement.

Therefore, I propose that avoidance behavior, as a response to frustration is functional in the sense that it leaves cognitive resources free for goal pursuit.

Note that this is contrary to the proposition that an approach motivation is functional for goal pursuit because it increases the engagement of effort Carver, By which mechanism is goal striving accomplished in the face of obstacles?

According to the RIM, an intending mechanism keeps goal-relevant behavioral schemata activated until the goal has been reached. Then the activation is turned off.

Thus, it is expected that the activation of behavioral schemata is maintained in the face of obstacles, resulting in an increased likelihood that the blocked behavior is executed again.

In addition, the reflective system generates a behavioral decision that is based on value and expectancy. In particular, appraisals of controllability and goal expectancy cf.

Based on such appraisals an individual decides to continue or to disengage from goal striving. Moreover, based on knowledge about means -ends relationships, alternative strategies may be chosen.

Depending on the behavioral decision, appropriate behavioral schemata are activated or turned off in the impulsive system.

Thus, if the person decides to continue goal striving by engaging more effort, activation of the blocked behavioral schemata will be maintained.

However, if the person decides to quit goal pursuit completely or to employ different means, activation of the blocked behavioral schemata will be turned off.

Furthermore, arousal is assumed to influence these processes. Yet, since arousal will not be investigated in the experimental part, this will be outlined only briefly.

Arousal may stem from various psychological and physiological sources, including motivationally relevant events like frustration.

For the present thesis it is important, how arousal affects impulsive and reflective processes of motivational intensity.

As arousal is assumed to strengthen associative processes, activation of goal-relevant behavioral schemata increases with arousal, resulting in higher persistence.

Furthermore, as very high levels of arousal diminish reflective processing, appraisal processes are impaired.

In sum, goal striving is assumed to be maintained by two interacting processes. The mechanism of intending keeps behavioral schemata activated despite the appearance of obstacles.

In addition, appraisal-based behavioral decisions moderate the activation of behavioral schemata. Whereas the first mechanism operates rather automatically, appraisals and decisions are reflective processes and therefore require time and cognitive resources.

Importantly, contrary to Carver it is not assumed that an approach motivation helps to overcome obstacles. Theoretical Part 23 Hypotheses and Outlook on the Experiments Based on the above reasoning, the following hypotheses are advanced.

Concerning motivational orientation it is assumed that due to the compatibility principle, frustration elicits an avoidance orientation.

This hypothesis was tested in Experiments 1 to 3 by adopting a motivational variation of an approach-avoidance task introduced by Chen and Bargh In this task, participants carry out approach and avoidance behaviors as a reaction to positive and negative words.

In the motivational variation employed in this thesis, the task was embedded in a performance test, with which trials could be created resulting in frustration.

As a comparison condition, trials that resulted in success were included. Thus overall, participants responded with approach and avoidance behavior to trials of frustration and success.

Besides the general question of motivational orientation elicited by frustration, Experiments 1 to 3 were designed to examine some further aspects.

Particularly, Experiment 1 was devised to explore the time course of motivational orientation elicitation.

For this purpose, participants in one condition of Experiment 1 had to respond immediately upon the occurrence of frustration and success with approach and avoidance behavior.

In a second condition the response signal appeared with a delay of ms. Thereby, how long the elicitation of a motivational orientation is maintained could be tested.

In Experiment 2, the generality of the effect was examined by assigning participants a superordinate avoidance goal. While the definition of frustration only allows for the blocking of approach goals, the predictions derived from the RIM also apply for superordinate avoidance goals.

Thus, the same effect was expected irrespective of the superordinate goal participants pursued. Experiment 3 was designed to more thoroughly explore the effect of motivational valence.

It is probable that this expression carries a negative intrinsic valence, which might drive the effect on approach-avoidance behavior.

In Experiment 3 frustration feedback was given in a more symbolic way. Herewith, the influence of intrinsic valence could be ruled out.

As outlined in the last section, the compatibility principle implies that executing incompatible behavior consumes cognit ive resources.

Applied to frustration, the execution of incompatible behavior as a response to obstacles is predicted to impair goal pursuit. Conversely, executing compatible responses should be functional, in the sense that it saves cognitive resources and thereby improves goal pursuit.

This hypothesis was tested in Experiment 4 by invoking a different version of the above described motivational approachavoidance task.

In particular, speed of goal achievement was assessed after participants had to carry out approach or avoidance behaviors towards obstacles.

As a comparison condition, speed of goal achievement was assessed after participants executed approach or avoidance behaviors towards helpful events i.

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